Alutal Measure & Trust

Aplicaciones comunes

Aplicações
Fluxo: Compressores e Bombas

As bombas são usadas em todas as operações de campo para movimentação de fluidos de perfuração, petróleo bruto e água produzida. O processo de compressão de gás aumenta a pressão do gás natural para facilitar o transporte do oleoduto. Os fluxostatos monitoram os fluxos de produtos para sinalizar condições de ausência de fluxo / baixo fluxo causadas por entupimentos ou tampas de válvulas e fornecem uma defesa contra a cavitação da bomba. Um sistema de desligamento também pode ser acionado. Dependendo da disponibilidade de energia, os interruptores de fluxo mecânicos ou eletrônicos fornecem proteção para os skids do compressor. Os interruptores de estado sólido proporcionam o mais alto nível de proteção da bomba, oferecendo baixa sensibilidade ao fluxo, operação de temperatura ampla e alta redução de velocidade.

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Flujo: Air flow

The flow of air is monitored in nearly all industrial settings, including processing applications, determining fuel-to-air mixtures for combistion, cooling, blowing & drying, aeration, ventilation, filtration, and ingredients mixing. Compressed air is essential for pneumatic tools, materials handling, painting, oxidation, fractionation, cryogenics, refrigeration, dehydration, filtration and aeration. A gas flowmeter with a totalizer provides an accurate measurement of compressed air consumption. Flowmeters help ensure efficient operation at rated SCFM output and are also used to detect leaks. La medición de índice de flujo y totalización de uso de flujo son vitales para mejorar las operaciones. The combustion efficiency of burners, furnaces and dryers is enhanced by obtaining repeatable flow measurement of the inlet combustion air. Significant airflow variables include pipe diameters, wide flow ranges, varying velocities and low flow sensitivity. Flow switches are necessary to help maintain flow rates within operational parameters allowing for automatic shutdowns or alarms when they drift out of pre-determined ranges. FLUJO DE AIRE COMPRESO: El aire compreso y contenido a una presión mayor a la atmosférica se ha convertido en la fuente de energía universal de la industria. Setenta por ciento de todos los fabricantes operan con aire compreso (CA). Las operaciones de proceso que dependen de CA incluyen herramientas neumáticas, manejo de material, pintura, oxidación fraccionamientos, criogénicas, refrigeración, deshidratación, filtración y aireación. Los medidores de flujo ayudan a asegurar una operación eficiente en salidas de SCAM medidas y también se usan para detectar fugas. Un medidor de flujo con totalizador proporciona una medición exacta del consumo de CA. MASS FLOW OF AIR: The flow of air (78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and traces of eight other gases) is monitored in nearly all industrial settings, including applications for processing; air/gas mixing; cooling; blowing & drying; combustion; aeration; ventilation; filtration; ingredient mixing; air sampling, and many others. Significant airflow variables include pipe diameters, wide flow ranges, varying velocities and low flow sensitivity. Large-duct flow applications for Thermatel include combustion air flow used in determining fuel-to-air mixtures for industrial boilers, heaters, furnaces and kilns.The combustion efficiency of burners, furnaces and dryers is enhanced by obtaining repeatable flow measurement of the inlet combustion air. Ducts can vary from six-inches in diameter to many square feet. Too little air and combustion is incomplete; too much air and combustion efficiency is greatly reduced. MASS AIR AND COMPRESSED AIR FLOW: The flow of air is monitored in nearly all industrial settings, including applications for processing, air/gas mixing, cooling, blowing & drying, combustion, aeration, ventilation, filtration, and ingredients mixing. Compressed air (CA) is essential for pneumatic tools, materials handling, oxidation, fractionalization, cryogenics, dehydration, filtration and aeration.Significant air-flow variables include pipe diameters, wide flow ranges, varying velocities and low flow sensitivity. Flowmeters help ensure efficient operation at rated SCFM output and detect air leaks. A flowmeter with a totalizer provides an accurate measurement of CA consumption. AIR AND GAS FLOW MONITORING: From the wellhead to the compression station, monitoring the flow of natural gas is essential. Other flow monitoring applications found in natural gas settings may include mass air and compressed air flow, process and waste gas flow (often required for reporting environmental emissions), and pump protection afforded by the sensing of reduced or no-flow conditions.Significant flow variables include pipe diameters, wide flow ranges, varying velocities, and low flow sensitivity. Flow meters ensure efficient operation at rated SCUM output and also detect leaks. A flow meter with a totalizer provides an accurate measurement of air or gas consumption.

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Flujo: Caudal en canal abierto

Algunos de nuestros transmisores de nivel están programados para poder realizar cómputos de caudal en canales abiertos. La programación incluye diversas geometrías de canales. Se incluye también la opción de emplear una tabla de interpolación de valores cuando no existan fórmulas para la geometría del canal.

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Flujo: Gas mixtures flow

Besides air and single gases, such as O2, N2, H2, etc., there are many gas mixtures being measured and controlled on a daily basis in different industries. One of the most common ones is natural gas used as a fuel or even biogases from decomposition of waste and organic material. There are also gases that are measured to control emissions or as part of environmental laws and restrictions. NATURAL GAS: The cleanest burning fossil fuel, natural gas trails electricity as the second most used energy source in industry. Industrial demand accounts for 40 percent of total natural gas demand, the highest of any sector. With a multitude of industrial uses, natural gas is consumed primarily in pulp and paper; metals manufacture; power generation; petroleum refining; stone, clay and glass manufacture; chemicals production; plastic resin production; and food processing.Natural gas flow at a gas production plant is monitored to provide flow measurement from each individual well. The main custody transfer meter is positioned downstream from where the flow from individual lines is combined. See also liquified gases. DIGESTER GAS FLOW (BIOGAS): In the anaerobic decomposition process, organic matter is converted into stable solids and energy-rich gas, mainly methane (60%) and carbon dioxide (40%). A combustible hydrocarbon of high fuel value, methane can serve as a fuel for in-plant heat exchangers, blower engines or other systems, marketed to the local industrial community, or burned off.Safe and reliable flow measurement is essential in the collection, disposal or re-use of methane gas. Because methane is highly combustible, flow instrumentation must be certified for operation in these hazardous locations. FLUJO DE GAS DIGESTOR: En el proceso de descomposición anaeróbica, la materia orgánica se convierte en sólidos estables y gas rico en energía, principalmente metano (60%) y dióxido de carbono (40%). Siendo un hidrocarburo de alto valor combustible, el metano puede servir como combustible de intercambiadores de calor en planta, motores de propulsión u otros sistemas, ser vendido a la comunidad industrial local o ser quemado.La medición de flujo segura y confiable es esencial en la recopilación, eliminación o re-uso de gas metano. Debido a que el metano es altamente combustible, la instrumentación de flujo debe estar certificada para operación en estos lugares peligros FLARE STACKS, EXHAUST & WASTE GAS FLOW: Industrial waste exhaust gases are present in a wide variety of compositions from benign to toxic. Measurement of the flow of these later gases is often required for reporting environmental emissions, including flared hydrocarbon gases. Off-gases are vapors emitted from extraction and treatment systems that are discharged directly to the atmosphere, captured or destroyed.Thermal dispersion flowmeters are ideal instruments for flare flow measurement due to low flow sensitivity and high turndown. Consideration must be given to changes in gas composition, abruptness of flow change, low pressures, and a wide range of velocities.

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Flujo: Gases líquidos

Algunos gases, tales como gas natural, nitrógeno, oxígeno y otros, existen y son utilizados en su estado líquido en la industria. Magnetrol no ofrece medidores de caudal de líquidos con la excepción de medición en canal abierto. Sin embargo, Magnetrol ofrece interruptores de alarma y/o control para caudales de líquidos. Las aplicaciones mas comunes incluyen protección de bombas y detección de alto o bajo caudal en tuberías.

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Flujo: Protección de bombas

La protección de bombas es una de las aplicaciones más comunes en la industria. El objetivo de la aplicación es la de confirmar de que la bomba esté efectivamente mandando producto por la tubería o que la bomba esté debidamente cebada o que no esté funcionando en vacío como en el caso de bombas centrífugas para líquidos. Algunos usuarios emplean interruptores de presión para esta aplicación; sin embargo, estos pueden dar señales falsas debido a fluctuaciones de presión en tuberías cerradas debido a cambios de temperatura. La solución es la de emplear un interruptor sensible al propio caudal de fluído manejado bien sea mecánico actuado por paleta o disco o sonda tipo ultrasónica o por dispersión térmica.

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Flujo: Single gas flow

Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen and Argon are the most commonly measured single gases in industry. Mass gas flow measurement has a greater advantage over volumentric measurement since it is unaffected by pressure and temperature variations. Flow monitoring of feed lines can prevent unsafe conditions that may arise when gas supply is insufficient. It is also usefull when centralized facilities bill the individual plants for gas usage. Oxygen flow increases combustion temperatures in open hearth and blast furnaces. Consideration must be given to Hydrogen’s volatility and its greater cooling effect on the sensor compared to other gases. Retractable probe assemblies allow the installation of the instrument in applications which must remain in continuous operation and in different pipe diameters.

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Level: Chemical & additives storage

From acids to water treatment additives, a wide array of chemicals are stored at a refinery in vessels that range in size from plastic totes to large steel tanks. Chemicals such as sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, liquid catalysts, blending additives and water treatment chemicals are essential to a refinery’s day-to-day operation. Liquid solution storage and day tanks require stringent level monitoring to ensure ongoing chemical processing. The nature of the chemical, the geometry of the holding vessel, and the presence of mixers or other hardware will determine the most suitable level technology for the chemical feeds or storage application.

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Level: Finished product storage

Finished refinery products stored in tanks with capacities that often exceed 100,000 gallons are motor gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, fuel oils, and LPG. Marketed products also include feedstocks for textiles, tires, pharmaceuticals and plastics. Tank monitoring uses buoyancy, pressure, servo-driven, and radar. Tanks may be provided with automatic overflow control and alarm systems. Automated tank gauging networks with proprietary protocols are a vital part of tank farm architecture. Today, thousands of tanks can be linked in a network offering enhanced data acquisition, field calibration and remote diagnostics.

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Level: Lubrication oils & hydraulic fluids

Generators and gas turbines will have integral lubricating systems to prevent damage caused by excessive friction. Often a portion of the lubricating oil is used in the hydraulic oil systems for hydraulic control devices. Lubricating oil is typically stored in integral stainless steel and carbon steel tanks that are monitored for level. A generator gearbox lube oil system may have a reservoir with a capacity of 3,000 gallons and a turbine oil system may have a reservoir with a capacity of 150 gallons. Level monitoring of lubrication oil tank reservoirs will ensure the proper functioning of turbines, electrical generators and other equipment with integral lubrication systems.

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Level: Process & field storage tanks

Petróleo crudo, líquidos de gas natural (NGLs) y agua se almacenan campos de petróleo y gas. A diferencia de los sectores con tanques de etapa intermedia en terminales y refinerías, los almacenes en campo consisten de recipientes pequeños asociados a los proceso de petróleo, gas y agua. El combustible generador de diesel, agua potable y agua contra incendio también se almacenan en costa afuera. NGLs se almacenan a presión atmosférica en tanques de pared doble. El monitoreo de nivel de tanque puede proporcionarse con sistemas de alarma y control de sobre flujo o apagado de bombas cuando el nivel caiga por debajo del nivel mínimo especificado. Los controladores de interfase censarán el inicio de la interfase aceite/agua durante la eliminación de agua de un tanque y controlan dicha eliminación.

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Level: Water storage & wash tanks

Storage for reclaimed water ranges from small tanks for potable and service water use, to large, open or enclosed, reservoirs. Large capacity storage – most commonly in open reservoirs – is necessary for off-line storage of peak flows, flow-through in-line storage, and long term storage of seasonal flows that are discharged during alternate seasons. Level monitoring is essential for water storage tanks. Controls are specified according to the size and geometry of the bulk storage vessel. Level controls in an open water storage reservoir must frequently withstand punishing weather conditions.

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Nivel: Cisterna de almacenaje y drenaje

Una planta tiene varias reservas de drenaje bajas llamadas cisternas. Las cisternas pequeñas incluyen cuartos para bomba y recipientes para ruptura de tanque que contienen las fugas. Las cisternas pequeñas se monitorean para detector fugas con interruptores de nivel simples operados por flotador diseñados para montaje en soportes en cisternas a nivel de suelo o abrevaderos. Estos interruptores detectan fugas o derrames de bombas, válvulas, contenedores y tuberías.

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Nivel: Potes de Sello

Esta es una de las aplicaciones más comunes que manejamos. El ‘seal pot’ o reservorio de aceite consiste en un tanque pequeño con aceite de lubricación para engranajes en equipos rotativos como bombas o turbinas. Hay empresas que se especializan en el diseño y fabricación de estos paquetes de lubricación y que hacen uso de interruptores sencillos de nivel como nuestro Echotel 910 o el flotador mecánico TK1 mini-Tuffy para alertar al operador de que el nivel está bajo y debe llenar de nuevo el reservorio con aceite lubricante.

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