Solar level and flow applications
- HEAT TRANSFER FLUID STORAGE: Large-scale solar collectors for
electric power generation require a heat transfer fluid (water, thermal
oils, or ionic liquids) to absorb the sun’s heat for generating steam.
Arrays of mirrored panels convert the sun’s energy into +750° F (+400°
C) thermal energy that’s hot enough to create steam for turbines. The
mirrors focus sunlight onto pipes of heat transfer fluid that run along
the mirror’s centerline. The fluid then boils water to produce steam.
Thermal fluids also help provide hot water and heat. Thermal fluids are
typically stored in pressurized tanks that require
- HOT WATER STORAGE: High-temperature solar water heaters provide energy-efficient hot water and heat for large industrial facilities. Thermal storage in buffer tanks provide interfaces between collector subsystems and energy-using systems. The preferred solar storage vessel is a vertical cylindrical tank designed for the maximum pressure of the supply water source, which may be as high as 150 psi.
- PUMP PROTECTION: Flow Switches protect pumps from damage due to leaks or if a valve is accidentally closed downstream. A flow switch will actuate an alarm and shut down the pump when flow drops below the minimum rate.
Biofuel is produced from biomass resources to make liquid fuels like ethanol, methanol, and biodiesel, and gaseous fuels such as hydrogen and methane (see Biogas). Biofuels are primarily used to fuel transportation vehicles, but they can...
Biogas from digesters is typically 60–70% methane and 30–40% carbon dioxide. Biogases fuel engine-generators or gas turbines to produce electricity. They also fuel boilers to produce heat or steam. Biogas utilization has increased in...
Geothermal reservoirs located deep underground provide powerful sources of heat energy. Drilling a geothermal well to a reservoir brings hot water and steam to the surface where it can be put to many uses. Geothermal level...
Hydropower is electricity produced from flowing water. Hydropower produces approximately 7% of U.S. energy (19% of world energy) and accounts for 45% of total renewable energy in the U.S. Newer technologies harness energy in ocean tides,...